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LIST OF NATIONAL HERITAGE TANGIBLE OBJECTS 2015

AMBER MERIT PILA

 Coal is one of the source of fossil fuels that has been industrially mined in the region beginning in 1847 in Labuan, Silimpodon in 1906 and 1913 in Batu Arang, before the start of industrial production of liquid petroleum gas in the early twenty-first century. Now the mining of coal is mostly focused in coal mines in Central Sarawak. Coal mines Merit Pila in Kapit, Sarawak Central is the largest coal mines in Malaysia, currently supplying over 50% of the country's coal resources. Coal is found in Nyalau rock formations aging 20-24 million years old. One thing that is interesting is the presence of many amber or fossilized tree resin in the pile of coal in Merit Pila. Amber comes from the Arabic word anbar and a pile of amber known as amberite. The biggest chunk of amber that was found in Merit Pila weighs 70kg which has now been split into three parts and stored in three separate museums, the Museum of Geology in Kuching, Ipoh Geological Museum and Museum Stuttgart. This amber chunk is believed to be the largest chunk of amber ever found in the world.

 

 

SIMPANG PULAI CASSITERITE

 In the early history of the development of the Malay Peninsula, tin has played a major role as a source of basic commodities that improves country's and people's economy. Tin mining industry began as early as the 1820s with the influx of miners from China to Perak. In the middle of the twentieth century, the Kinta Valley is a world leading producer of tin. Tin or Stannum (50Sn) is one the metal element and the mineral that was mined in major tin mines around the world is cassiterite (SnO2). In addition to the cassiterite mineral, tin elements are also sometimes found in sulphide mineral Stannite (Cu2FeSnS4), within the silicate mineral Malayaite (CaSnO [SiO 4]) or occasionally tin can exist as a natural mineral element Stannum (Sn). Kinta Valley mostly mined tin as piles of tiny placer that is small amounts of tin trapped at the bottom of a pile of sand. However, there are several companies that mined primer tin which is tin lod in hard granite. Mineral cassiterite in lod is usually larger and heavier. Tin samples weighing 87 kg is one of the world's largest tin ore. This sample was found in a lod ore in Keramat Pulai, near Ipoh. This cassiterite is a legacy of world's largest and most important mineral in the history of the mining industry in Malaysia.

 

POS BROOKE SERPENTINITE

 The most important moment in the geological history of Malaysia is the merger of two blocks (pieces) of tectonic blocks which is Sibumasu Block and East Malaya Block that formed Peninsular Malaysia and the Titiwangsa Main Range about 220 million years ago (Late Triassic). Up to the age of 290 million years ago (Early Permian) Sibumasu Block represented by the states of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia was still a part of the cold climates supercontinent Gondwana that was separated by PaleoTethys Ocean with a width of thousands of kilometers from Malaya East Block which was already are in the tropics. About 290 million years ago, MesoTethys Ocean was formed resulting in the separation of Sibumasu Block from Gondwanaland and pushing the block to East Malaya Block. This movement causes the Ocean PaleoTethys to become increasingly narrow and shallow and eventually early clash occurred between Sibumasu Block and East Malaya Block around 260 million years ago (Late Permian). The clash lasted for over 40 million years. As a result of these encounters, various types of rocks of various ages that represented thousands of kilometers of PaleoTethys Ocean oppressed bottom - faulted, folded and metamorphosed leaving a wide path just 10-30km known in the region as Bentong-Raub suture zone. Bentong-Raub suture lines are part of Earth's crust collision path that can be traced from the region in southwestern China, through Myanmar, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia before ending in Sumatra. In these various suture zones, the evidence of metamorphosed oceanic crust was found, among it was the most important discovery of serpentinite and chert which can give the interpretation of the origin of the deep sea. In this case serpentinite is construed resulting from the process of volcanic rock metamorphism in the sea. Some serpentinite deposits have been recorded at the Bentong-Raub suture zone, the main including Pos Brooke serpentinite (Lojing District, Gua Musang, Kelantan), Cheroh (Raub District, Pahang) and Rokan Hill (Kuala Pilah District, Negeri Sembilan). Serpentinite (Mg3Si2O5 (OH) 4) is a semi-precious stone from yellowish green to dark green colour and often exist as Antigorite, Lizardite and chrysotile varieties. Serpentinite in Bentong-Raub suture zone has low economic value due to the presence of too many cracks in it. However, the existence of serpentinite is the most important legacies of the many other rocks in Bentong-Raub suture zone proving a clash between Sibumasu Block and East Malaya Block in the history of the earth..

 

GLACIAL OCEAN DIAMICTITE WITH DROPSTONE STRUCTURE, LANGKAWI

 In history of geology, it was construed that Peninsular Malaysia was formed by a collision of two blocks (pieces) that have different tectonic origin. The western part of Peninsular Malaysia associated with South China-Burma-Malaya-Sumatra Block (SIBUMASU) that derived from the breakdown of Gondwanaland supercontinent in the Southern Hemisphere, while the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia is part of the Indochina block. In the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian, earth experienced global cooling to the extent that most of the Gondwanaland supercontinent was covered by thick glaciers. When earth start building heat again, some of the glaciers melted and floating glaciers dropping stones that were trapped in bottom ocean. The result was a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing a block of rock foreign origin, size and shape named marine glacial diamictite with a unique feature called the Dropstone. The presence of this rock in the Lion rock formation on the island of Langkawi is a strong evidence that the western part of Peninsular Malaysia is part of Gondwanaland. Diamictite originated from Early Permian (~ 290 million years old) glacier from Pulau Intan contains many older block of rock, including granite block that is interpreted derived from Gondwanaland main supercontinent, because granite has not been formed in Malaysia before the age of the earth.

 

COOL CLIMATE BRAKIOPOD FOSSIL, LANGKAWI

 In history of geology, it was construed that Peninsular Malaysia was formed by a collision of two blocks (pieces) that have different tectonic origin. The western part of Peninsular Malaysia associated with South China-Burma-Malaya-Sumatra Block (SIBUMASU) that derived from the breakdown of Gondwanaland supercontinent in the Southern Hemisphere, while the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia is part of the Indochina block. In the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian, earth experienced global cooling to the extent that most of the Gondwanaland supercontinent was covered by thick glaciers. Sibumasu located on the northern edge of Gondwanaland also received a deep impression due to global cooling event at that time. In times of extreme weather, animals that are benthic (living attached on the ocean floor) became very endemic and significant polarization in benthic animal life occurred. Among the limited distribution of life on the edge of Gondwanaland (cold climate) during the First Perm is a brachiopod group of genre such as Sulciplica, Trigonotreta, Lamniplica, Bandoproductus, Arctitreta, Kasetia and Streptorhynchus. The presence of fossils of these genre in black mud stone dated Early Permian (~ 285 million years ago) in Langkawi further show the evidence that during that time Sibumasu Block was on the edge of Gondwanaland. This fossil compilation is sometimes found with diamictite mudstone originated from glacier ocean glacier and fauna fossils. The heritage of Kilim fossil is very important to determine the position of Langkawi paleogeography that is near Gondwanaland and Langkawi paleoclimate that is very cold 285-300 million years ago.

 

POS BELAU WOOD FOSSIL

 

The discovery of fossil petrified wood is uncommon especially when these fossils were found in rocks that are as old as ~ 275 million years ago (late Early Permian). What is even more interesting is Araucarioxylon fossil ferns are found in Bentong-Raub suture zone. Although the theory of many states that collisions between Sibumasu Block and Malaya East Block began in the Permian (~ 260 million years) and ends at the time of the Late Triassic (~ 220 million years), but the discovery of the wood fossil showed that the PaleoTethys Ocean was already shallow and forming small islands filled with a variety of flora and fauna on it. Terrestrial sedimentary rock in one of the island was recorded as Ayam Mountain as we can see today. As a result of the collision of two tectonic blocks, all rocks formed in PaleoTethys Ocean clustered together in Bentong-Raub suture zone. These include volcanic rocks and deep sea cherts, sandstone, shale and shallow ocean limestone and sandstone and land conglomerate. Araucarioxylon Belau Post wood fossil a very important fossil heritage in the recorded history of Peninsular Malaysia’s earth formation.

PEDA SWAMP LEAF FOSSIL

 Layers of fossil leaves in Peda swam, Terengganu is a layer of fossils dated Late Carboniferous (~ 315 million years old) are the densest in the richest set of the flora in Malaysia. The fossils of leaves of various species is an evidence of the mainland's largest and oldest colonization in Malaysia. The thick layer of leaf fossil age is older than the Bukit Dendong (Permian) flora fossil, while the oldest fossil flora dated Early Carboniferous are preserved in ocean sediments. Among the major genre of Peda Swamp flora fossils are Gigantopteris leaves, Tingia, Cordaites, Archaeopteris, Taeniopteris, Neuropteris and Sphenophyllum showing perspective Cathaysia flora continent. In addition to an abundance of leaves fossil, Lepidodendron fossil trunks and roots of trees and Sigillaria Stigmaria fossils were also found in the Peda Swamp. These flora fossil assemblages proved that East Malaya Block is part of the South China Block and Indochina Block. This also proves that Malaysia's oldest land masses formed in the Terengganu State, about a hundred million years before Peninsular Malaysia was formed. Peda Swamp fossil assemblages of flora fossil is a very important heritage in the history of the formation of the oldest mainland in Malaysia.

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